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Most examinations do not require you to be an Orange County resident. For those positions that do have a residency requirement, the information will be stated on the exam announcement.
In order to determine when a specific examination is being offered, you must check the schedule of announced examinations. Examinations are prepared and scheduled by the New York State Civil Service Commission. Orange County Civil Service requests examinations to be scheduled based on factors such as the number of positions, the length of the current eligible list, the age of the list, and the turnover of employees within the title. Eligible lists are established for a minimum of one year up to a maximum of four years.
If you have applied for any other civil service examination(s) scheduled on the same date for other jurisdictions (excluding New York City), complete the Cross-Filer Form and submit it with your application. You must make arrangements to take all exams at one site and notify all other agencies involved no later than two (2) weeks before the test date.
If you have applied for both State and local agency exams, you must make arrangements to take all exams at the NYS exam site by completing the Cross-Filer Form and submitting it with your application.
No – The cities of Newburgh, Middletown and Port Jervis, and the public schools found therein, function independently and have their own civil service commissions.
Yes – A $20.00 ($40.00 for uniform titles) non-refundable application processing fee in the form of a check or money order payable to the Commissioner of Finance must accompany your application.
No – Please read the exam announcement carefully to determine if you meet the minimum qualifications presented. Should you be disqualified for the examination, your fee will not be refunded.
A written request with supporting documentation should accompany your exam application and will then be reviewed in accordance with the alternate test date policy established by this department.
A written request for special arrangements relating to scheduling or specialized testing needs should be included with your application. You must clearly state the type of special arrangements needed and provide the appropriate documentation to support the request.
No – You must complete the employment experience section entirely, being sure to answer all questions, provide complete dates of employment (month/year), number of hours worked per week and a detailed description of your work experience.
Applicants who do not submit sufficient documentation or fail to meet the qualifications presented on the announcement are notified by mail, approximately two weeks following the last filing date, and given a designated time period in which to respond. Otherwise, you should expect to receive an admission letter.
Approved candidates should receive an admission letter approximately one week prior to the scheduled examination date. If you do not receive your admission letter within three (3) days before the exam date, please call the Exam Unit at (845) 291-2730.
You may call the Exam Unit at (845) 291-2730 approximately two weeks after you have filed your application to determine when you have been scheduled. Due to the amount of applications received and the need to occasionally deviate from the projected schedule, applicants should note any days that would present a scheduling conflict in their application. Approved candidates should receive an admission letter approximately one week prior to the examination date.
It is very rare for an examination to be cancelled. Please call the Exam Hotline # (845) 291-2707 and select Option 1 for the most up-to-date examination information.
Open competitive examinations are offered to the general public and may be taken by candidates who meet the minimum qualifications presented on the examination announcement. Promotional examinations are restricted to current employees of the participating appointing authority who meet the service requirement and qualifying experience stated on the announcement.
Continuous Recruitment examinations are those for which applications are accepted on a continuous basis – there is no last filing date. Some are administered on a computer while others are held on a training and experience basis. The scores for these examinations are inter-filed in rank order with existing candidate scores to form a constantly changing eligible list. A passing candidate’s name remains on the list for one year.
A Training & Experience Examination is a method of testing whereby a candidate receives a test score based on information submitted in their application and/or a questionnaire which is sent to the eligible candidate. In some instances, the candidate will be requested to complete a Web-based questionnaire. The score is calculated from weights given to various factors of education (training) and experience.
By referring to the examination announcement under the heading “Subject of the Examination”, you will see a specific series and subject areas listed beneath it. This serves as a guide for preparing for the exam. We suggest you print a copy of the exam announcement for future reference, as it is removed from the website following the last filing date. Some study guides are available on the Civil Service Exam page.
Unless otherwise noted on the examination announcement or job specification, you do not have to be a citizen. You must be legally able to work in the United States.
Notify the Exam Unit immediately of any change of name, address or phone number by completing the Address Change Form located under Civil Service Documents. It is your responsibility to keep this office updated with your current information.
An eligible list is a list of candidates who have passed an examination for a particular title arranged in score descending order (highest to lowest). When an agency or department has a vacancy for a title that requires an examination, they request the certified list of eligible candidates and send out canvass letters to determine who is interested in the position. In accordance with civil service guidelines, the agency or department must choose from the top three interested candidates, following any canvassing, if appointing from the list.
You will receive written notification of your examination score at the same time the eligible list is established. This is generally between three to six months following the examination date for regularly scheduled exams held on Saturdays. For computer-based examinations held on weekdays, you should expect to receive a score letter within a month or two following the examination. Test scores are not available over the telephone.
All requests for information must be in writing and sent to:
Commissioner of Human Resources 255 Main Street Goshen, NY 10924Please include detailed information as to the nature of the documentation being requested. We will acknowledge receipt of your request within 5 business days; however, it can take up to 20 business days to provide the documentation requested. Call us at 845-291-2707 for further questions.
The County Clerk’s Office is located on the first and second floors of the Government Center at 255 Main Street Goshen, NY 10924. Our offices at 4 Glenmere Cove Road in Goshen have returned to the Government Center at 255 Main Street.For more information contact us at 845-291-2690.
Visit our Resource Directory to view the locations and operating hours of the three Department of Motor Vehicle locations. For more information contact us at 845-291-2690.
The Orange County Clerk’s Office is open Monday through Friday 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Pistol permitting is from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. and passports are from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. with the exception of legal holidays. Please plan accordingly when bringing in files for reviewing, applying for U.S Passports, pistol permits and other timely paperwork. For more information contact us at 845-291-2690.
It is important to remember when applying for a United States Passport to not delay your application process, being that it takes up to six weeks for the U.S Department of State to process the applications that we submit to them. For more information or questions, please call: 845-291-2698 or visit the Passports page of our website.
Divorce records are obtainable by the plaintiff, defendant or their attorneys of record (identification required) from the Court Papers section of the County Clerk’s Office. It could take a minimum of five days to obtain a certified copy of divorce files. You may review / obtain a divorce file that you are not a party to by presenting a notarized statement (specifically stating the documents needing to be reviewed, obtained or certified) from one of the litigants or with a court order. Identification of the person granted permission using notarized statement MUST be presented at time of request.
For more information, please call 845-291-3083 or visit the Court Records portion of our website.
Birth and Death records are available from the local Registrar of the municipality where the event occurred. Marriage records are available from the Town or City Clerk of the municipality where the Marriage License was issued. For further information about these services, please contact the appropriate office of the municipality involved, the numbers are available under the Birth, Death and Marriage Records page of our website.
Visit our Pistol Permit page in the Sheriff's Department for more information.
Visit our online search or visit our Record Room located at the County Clerk’s office to use our public computers.
An Answer must be in writing and the entire caption, including the index number and an original signature is required. The Answer can be mailed to the County Clerk’s office. If it is an E-Filed case, the Answer needs to be uploaded to the New York State Court Electronic Filing website.
Visit our online search or visit our Record Room located at the County Clerk’s office to use our public computers to obtain a copy of Judgment and / or Satisfaction of Judgment.
For criminal matters call the County Court and for civil matters call the Supreme Court at 845-476-3430.
For criminal matters call the County Court at 845-476-3440 and for civil matters call the Supreme Court at 845-476-3430.
In order for bail to be returned, the case must be disposed. If the case is disposed, the County Court will file a Cash Bail form with the County Clerk’s office. A certified copy of the Cash Bail form can be obtained from the Clerk’s office for a fee of $5. The certified Cash Bail will then need to be presented to the Finance Department for processing. In order to see if a Cash Bail form has been filed, you can visit our online search or call 845-291-3286.
This Certificate is available only through the Finance Department which is located at:30 Matthews StreetGoshen, NY 10924Phone: 845-291-2485
In New York, there are four classes of offenses for which a person may be prosecuted: traffic infractions, violations, misdemeanors, and felonies. Traffic infractions and violations are considered “petty offenses,” and are not considered crimes. They carry the least severe sanctions, generally no more than fines or jail sentences of up to fifteen days.
Misdemeanors and felonies are crimes. Misdemeanors are less-serious crimes, carrying no more than one year in jail. Felonies are more serious, and carry more than a year of imprisonment, including possible life sentences for the most-serious felonies.
Generally, an arrest is the first stage in the criminal justice process, although in cases involving non-alcohol-related traffic infractions, defendants will almost always be issued traffic citations and not be taken into custody. In most cases, other than traffic infractions, the defendant will be fingerprinted. Police officers will also prepare reports concerning the offense and the arrest.
For many less-serious crimes and petty offenses, the arresting officer may give the defendant an appearance ticket, which allows the officer to release the defendant from custody and requires the defendant to appear in court at a later date. If an appearance ticket is not issued, a defendant will be held to appear before a judge.
The Orange County District Attorney’s Office represents the People of the State of New York, and has the authority to investigate and prosecute all offenses in Orange County. In most traffic infraction cases, and all violations of municipal ordinances, the District Attorney defers prosecution authority to municipal attorneys and police officers.
The District Attorney is elected by the residents of his or her county, to represent the state in proceedings against those accused of offenses. David M. Hoovler is the Orange County District Attorney. The approximately 45 attorneys who work in his office are called Assistant District Attorneys (ADAs).
The District Attorney’s Office has two ADAs on-call 24 hours a day, year-round. When the District Attorney’s Office is closed, those on-call ADAs are available to respond to the scene of major crimes, to answer inquiries from police agencies, and to make recommendations regarding the amount of bail to be set in a particular case. In addition, a district attorney’s investigator is on-call at all times, to assist the on-call ADAs and police agencies, as necessary.
An arraignment represents a defendant’s first appearance in court. At arraignment, the defendant is informed of the charges against him and a bail determination is made. He is also informed of some of his rights, including his right to an attorney, his right to an adjournment to get an attorney, his right to remain silent, his right to a trial, and, in felony cases, his right to a preliminary hearing.
The defendant is notified of his next court appearance. Often a defendant will not have an attorney at arraignment. When the defendant returns to court at a later date, the defendant will then be arraigned again with an attorney present.
Use the following guidelines when looking at bail and how it is set:
Local criminal courts have jurisdiction over all aspects of prosecution for misdemeanors and petty offenses, including the assignment of counsel, discovery, pretrial motions, trial, and sentencing. The court is also authorized to accept guilty pleas, which may occur at any time after arraignment.
The following happens to a felony case after arraignment:
Grand jury proceedings are secret and only specifically authorized people can be present in the grand jury chamber, including the grand jurors, the ADA, a stenographer, the witness being questioned, and a few other classes of people necessary to support certain witnesses or to assist the functioning of the grand jury. Only the members of the grand jury may be present while the grand jury deliberates.
The grand jury must file the indictment with the County Court, and the defendant must be arraigned on the indictment. The arraignment process, bail proceedings, and pretrial proceedings conducted in County Court will be similar to those described above with respect to local criminal courts.
In addition, at the County Court arraignment, the prosecutor gives the defendant a copy of the indictment and certain documents that the law requires. The defendant enters a plea of guilty or not guilty to the indictment. Bail may be reviewed and different conditions set.
Although most defendants plead guilty before trial, some cases do go to trial. At trial, the prosecutor has the burden of presenting evidence to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty of the charged offense or offenses. The defendant does not have to prove, or disprove, anything at trial.
Evidence at trial many include testimony of witnesses; physical evidence, such as a gun; photographs or videos; and scientific evidence. For felonies and most misdemeanors, the defendant has the right to a jury trial or a trial to be decided by the judge (called a non-jury or bench trial), at the defendant’s option. For traffic infractions and violations, the judge will always decide the guilt or non-guilt of the defendant.
Trials generally consist of several distinct stages:
Depending on the circumstances of the particular case, sentencing may occur right after the plea or trial, or may be delayed for several weeks so that the Orange County Probation Department may prepare a presentence report which will aid the judge in determining the appropriate sentence. Unless a sentence is negotiated as part of a plea agreement, the judge will determine the defendant’s sentence based on the facts of the case and the laws governing permissible sentences.
A person can be sentenced to incarceration, probation, a fine, or a combination of those sentences. A defendant can also be sentenced to a conditional discharge, whereby the defendant is released with conditions imposed on him that order the defendant to, for example, complete community service or domestic violence classes, to abide by an order of protection, to pay restitution, or to remain arrest-free.
A defendant who is convicted by plea of guilty or convicted after trial may appeal his conviction, or sentence, or both, to an appellate court. If an appellate court affirms a conviction, the defendant loses his appeal and his conviction and sentence are not disturbed. If an appellate court reverses a judgment of conviction, the defendant can either withdraw his guilty plea or receive a new trial, or, the verdict or plea may stand, but the defendant can be resentenced.
The District Attorney may not appeal an acquittal after trial. The District Attorney may appeal a dismissal by a judge that occurred before a trial has begun, or a ruling by a judge that renders the District Attorney unable to prosecute a case based on that ruling. The District Attorney may also appeal an illegal sentence.
Our Public Safety Telecommunicator/Call Takers are required to ask many questions in order to provide responding emergency services agencies an accurate picture of what is going on at your location. In most cases, units are responding while you are speaking with the telecommunicator/call taker. Our Public Safety Telecommunicators enter information updates into the CAD incident as we gather the facts from you.
No. Once we verify your address, name, telephone number and the basics about what is going on, the incident is sent to a dispatch position via computer aided dispatch system.
The time it takes for a responder to arrive after your call depends on several factors. All calls are given a priority that is based upon the incident type and whether or not the incident is still in progress. All priority calls are dispatched using Automatic Vehicle Locators, so the closest unit will be dispatched to your location. Other factors are: weather conditions, how far the unit is from the incident, and how busy the agency is at the time. As a result, calls that are not a high priority may wait until a unit becomes available in the area.
Yes. That said, text-to-9-1-1 is a best efforts attempt to facilitate communication to 9-1-1. It does not provide the same level of location information as a voice call. It is always faster to place a voice call to 9-1-1. However, in some situations when the caller does not want to speak because they fear for their safety text-to-9-1-1 is appropriate.
No. It is unlawful to have an automatic telephone tape dialer call 9-1-1. In the unlikely event one of these calls is received, a law enforcement user agency must be dispatched to investigate the source of the call first. This process could potentially result in a significant emergency services response delay to the location.
Yes. The E 9-1-1 Center answers all of the 7-digit telephone numbers assigned to our user agencies for reporting non-emergency incidents. In addition, if someone calls one of our user agencies directly to report an incident the user agency will transfer the call to the E 9-1-1 Center for processing. This enables our staff to maintain a constant awareness of what all of our user agencies are doing at any given moment.
Yes. It is recommended you have your assigned address number on the building. If the building is a distance from the street, your number should be displayed on a post at the end of the driveway. Time is sometimes critical in an emergency. Not having your address number properly posted may result in a delay in emergency services arriving at your address.
No. While the U.S. Postal Service requires your address number to be posted on your mailbox, the E 9-1-1 addressing law requires the number to be placed on the building. The most frequent complaint we receive from our 110 user agencies is that they wasted valuable time attempting to locate the address that didn't have the address number posted.
No. NEVER hang up after calling 9-1-1. If you accidentally misdial 9-1-1 you cannot possibly hang up fast enough to cancel the call. Many 9-1-1 hang up calls are crimes in progress. We consider every 9-1-1 hang up to be an emergency unless we are able to verify otherwise. We always call 9-1-1 hang up calls back. If we receive an answering machine, no answer, busy signal, or the person sounds suspicious, law enforcement is immediately dispatched.
If you are not satisfied with our performance, you should ask to speak with the shift supervisor. If you decide to express your dissatisfaction after you have hung up, please call our non-emergency telephone number and ask to speak with the shift supervisor. If after speaking with the shift supervisor you are still not satisfied, you may contact the E 9-1-1 Department administrative office at 845-615-0400 Monday - Friday during business hours. Our administrative staff will review the call. Upon request, we will get back to you with our findings. The E 9-1-1 Department is committed to quality customer service. We take all customer concerns seriously.
Local Law Number 5 of 2015 established the Board of Ethics. The Board is comprised of 7 members: appointed by the County Executive and confirmed by the Orange County Legislature. The Board is charged with the following major responsibilities:
All Board members must reside and be eligible to vote in Orange County. No member shall hold the office of Chair, First Vice Chair, Second Vice Chair, Secretary, or Sargent at Arms in a federal state or Orange County political party.
The current members of the board are:
There is also one more member yet to be nominated by the Chair of Legislature.
Yes, the meetings are open to the public, although certain matters may be discussed in executive session.
Anyone from the general public or any county officer or employee may file a complaint or an allegation of a conflict of interest or violation under this local law of any officer of employee of the County of Orange.
You must send a signed complaint to:
Orange County Board of Ethics
15 Matthews Street, Suite 202
Goshen, NY 10924
Attention: Confidential Secretary
All complaints or allegations of a conflict of interest or violation of the Ethics and Disclosure Local Law are kept in the confidential records of the Board, unless made public by the Board after there has been a determination that there has been a violation. In addition, a Court could Order the complaint or allegation to be unsealed.
The Code of Ethics defines a gift as any gift having a value of $75 or more in any 12 month consecutive period. A “gift” or “financial benefit” includes any of the following:
A “gift” and “financial benefit” does not include campaign contributions authorized by law. Excluded Items include items or services excluded by the local law including under Section 6 F. (2), including the following:
Confidential information is information acquired in the course of official duties or otherwise that is not subject to the New York State Freedom of Information Law.
A conflict of interest exists when an county elected official county officer or employee knowingly acquires, solicits, negotiates for, or accepts any interest, employment or anything of value which would put them in violation of the Orange County Ethics Law, including but not limited to solicitation of employment for themselves, their spouse, a child, member of household of any county contractor if that individual has discretion to award a contract to such contractor or has the authority to appropriate money for such specific contract.
Whether a conflict of interest exists under particular facts (or with respect to a particular employee) can best be ascertained by seeking an Advisory Opinion, in advance of engaging in the questioned conduct, from the Board of Ethics.
Employees and county officers shall not engage in, solicit, negotiate for, or promise to accept private employment or render services for private interests when such employment or services creates a conflict or impairs the proper discharge of his or her official duties.
All employees and officers can and should seek an advisory opinion from the Ethics Board. They are there to help you.
Yes. No county officer or employee responsible for appropriating funds for the effectuation of, or negotiating or authorizing a contract may ask for, pursue or accept a private post-government employment opportunity with any person or entity who actually received such contract for a period of two years after ceasing to be an officer or employee of Orange County.
Yes. This restriction may be waived by the Board of Ethics upon a finding, based upon clear and convincing evidence, that an appropriator, negotiating or contracting person on behalf of the County had no direct involvement with the selection of the contractor or that the involvement was limited to issuing an approval of or appropriation for a recommended contractor that the approver or appropriator was not otherwise involved with the selection.
Penalties may include the following:
The following people must file a financial disclosure statement:
Access the Financial Disclosure Statement form (PDF).
Review the following guidelines to see when you need to file:
Annual disclosure statements shall be filed with:
Secretary of the Board of Ethics
Board of Ethics
15 Matthews Street
Yes. All county officers and employees will be offered training on the Ethics and Disclosure Law. All individuals who are required to fill out the Financial Disclosure Statement will receive training in March of 2016. Thereafter, all other employees will receive training.
Yes but with redaction. All filed Financial Disclosure statements for county elected officials (County Executive, Sheriff, District Attorney, County Clerk and Legislators) will be posted on the Orange County website with redaction. All other filed financial disclosure statements will be available to the public for inspection and photocopying in accordance with New York State Freedom of Information Law.
What will be redacted: Prior to public disclosure, the following personal information will be redacted: your address, phone number, email address, the names of your minor children, and any other relevant information determined by the Ethics Board necessary or appropriate.
A foreign-trade zone (FTZ) is a physical location that has been designated by the FTZ Board as an area where a user can gain access to the benefits of the FTZ Program. The foreign-trade zone site while located within the United States is considered outside the Customs Territory of the U.S. It is the distinction of being considered outside the Customs Territory of the U.S. that affords the opportunity for FTZ benefits.
Merchandise located in a FTZ is still considered to be part of international commerce. It is only once the merchandise leaves the FTZ (either in the same condition as imported or further manufactured), that normal tariff and Customs regulations pertaining to the entry of goods are applied.
Congress under the Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) Act of 1934 established the Foreign-Trade Zone Program. Its purpose is to “expedite and encourage foreign commerce” with the intent to stimulate international trade while creating jobs and investment in the United States. It is a trade program, overseen by the Foreign-Trade Zone Board which is comprised of the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of the Treasury.
The FTZ Program is administered by the Executive Secretary and his staff who ensure that the designation of foreign-trade zone sites (both multi user and for individual companies) and their use is consistent with U.S. trade policy and provides a positive net benefit to the U.S. in terms of economic development. In essence, approval for participation in the Foreign-Trade Zone Program affords the user an exemption to the tariff schedule of the Unites States, allowing the deferral, reduction or elimination of duties paid on imported materials and goods in exchange for sustained or increased jobs and investment in the U.S. This in turn provides a benefit to the U.S. in terms of increased economic activity in the U.S. that might otherwise move offshore.
General Purpose Zones are multi user sites that can store any type of merchandise allowed to be imported into the U.S. They are most often warehouses, industrial parks with multiple tenants or acreage associated with either an ocean or air port. Multiple general purpose zone sites may exist within a foreign-trade zone project. In Orange County, there are seven different general purpose zone sites including acreage associated with the Stewart Airport and Port Newburgh as well as other sites located around Orange, Dutchess and Rockland Counties.
Companies who are not manufacturing imported materials into a different article of commerce and who are willing to locate their operations in any of these sites can gain relatively quick access to Foreign Trade Zones (FTZ) benefits by gaining the approval of the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection through the activation process.
A subzone is a single user foreign-trade zone site which is authorized for the sole use of a specific company. Merchandise that can be processed through the subzone is limited in scope and is specifically approved by the Foreign-Trade Zone Board. Generally, a subzone designation is sought by a private company who cannot relocate their operations into an area designated as a general purpose zone site. The Orange County FTZ has two sites designated as subzones. However, neither is currently active.
There are several basic questions that need to be answered before use of the foreign-trade zone program is even considered. They are:
If the answer to any of the above questions is yes, use of the foreign-trade zone program may provide a benefit to the company.
Activation is Customs official authorization for a designated zone operator to operate the zone. Activation allows the zone user, under the supervision of a zone operator to bring merchandise into the foreign trade zone (FTZ) without the payment of duty, store it and if authorized, manufacture it, and then transfer it either into the commerce of the U.S., to another FTZ or to export it. For a zone site to become activated, the following requirements must be met:
In New York, the grand jury is an arm of a superior court. In Orange County, the superior court is Orange County Court. A grand jury consists of 23 citizens, who the court selects at random, and who are intended to reflect a fair cross-section of the community.
Grand juries are required by the New York State Constitution in cases where a person is charged with a felony, unless the person waives the grand jury process in open court and in writing. The grand jury stands between a citizen and the power of the government. No one may be tried for a serious crime unless a grand jury has determined that there is sufficient evidence. The grand jury is unique. Only the grand jury has the ability to conduct a careful, complete, and thorough investigation at an early stage in a case.
The prosecutor, who always carries the burden of proof, is required to present evidence.
Initially, the prosecutor. However, unlike a trial, grand jurors may ask questions of witnesses and may direct that additional witnesses and evidence be subpoenaed. In addition, the accused has the fundamental right to testify in his or her own behalf and may ask grand jurors to consider hearing from additional witnesses in his or her defense.
For the most part, the grand jury receives the same types of evidence in the same manner as a trial jury. The prosecutor must follow the rules of evidence and must decide the admissibility of evidence, just as a trial judge would.
Unlike the grand juries in most other jurisdictions, a New York grand jury generally cannot consider hearsay evidence. Witnesses must personally appear and give sworn testimony.
Unlike the majority of United States jurisdictions, grand jury witnesses in New York automatically receive transactional immunity, unless they decide to waive immunity, in writing, before the grand jury, and with their lawyer present. A witness who receives transactional immunity can never be prosecuted for any crime involved in their testimony before the grand jury. Even witnesses who actually confess to crimes before a grand jury can never be prosecuted for those crimes.
Prosecutors must be careful in deciding what witnesses to call before a grand jury, so that they do not immunize a witness for a crime, and must, when appropriate, demand that a witness waive transactional immunity.
The prosecutor must provide the law to the grand jury, just as a judge would provide the law to a trial jury. The grand jurors can ask legal questions of the prosecutor or the court.
The testimony of witnesses, presentation of evidence, and legal instruction before the grand jury is recorded by a court stenographer, and is reviewed by the court in any case where the grand jury returns an indictment. An indictment may be dismissed for misconduct on the part of the prosecutor, for any error that might prejudice the grand jury’s decision, or for insufficiency of the evidence to support the charges in the indictment.
Prosecutors, like all lawyers, are subject to a written code of ethical rules. A violation of those rules may result in serious sanctions.
The grand jury votes and, with the agreement of at least twelve grand jurors, may choose from several possible outcomes:
Yes. At the beginning of their term, grand jurors are given a handbook detailing their powers and duties. The grand jurors are also shown an orientation video, “Protect and Uphold,” which outlines those powers and duties. Finally, the presiding judge and the district attorney also repeat all of the grand jury’s powers and duties orally.
New York law requires that grand jury proceedings be conducted in secret. There are three main reasons that secrecy of the grand jury is essential:
No. It is repeatedly made clear to the grand jurors that they represent the court and their community, not the prosecutor or the police. They alone have the discretion to indict or dismiss a criminal charge. In practice, only a fraction of felony arrests result in indictments issued by grand juries. There are several reasons for that:
Even where an indictment is issued, many grand juries decide to dismiss individual counts or charges, while indicting others.
The Sheriff's Office accepts any certificate that is submitted by an applicant but submits that application without a recommendation to the Judges if the certificate is more than one year old (assuming you are otherwise qualified). The Judges, who are the licensing officers, make the determination as to the validity of any safety course certificate.
The Handgun Safety Course is conveniently offered at the Sheriff's Office, taught by a team of qualified Firearms Instructors. The Handgun Safety Course is offered several times a month. Additionally, the Sheriff's Office has established a list of recommended NRA Instructors from around the area who teach a common syllabus.
Visit the course registration site. A Registration Video Tutorial is provided to direct you through the registration process. Be advised your class enrollment is not confirmed until your credit card payment is completed. Make sure you receive an email with class enrollment and payment confirmation.
Training regimens being utilized by other Instructors may vary widely resulting in applicants not receiving the same training. Therefore, if you provide a Safety Course Certificate from an Instructor that does not appear on the recommended list, your application file will be forwarded to the Judges without a recommendation (assuming you are otherwise qualified). The Judges, who are the licensing officers, make the determination as to the validity of any safety course certificate.
No, all students interested in enrolling in the Civilian Tactical Handgun Training program must first complete the Handgun Safety Course taught at the Sheriff’s Office. The Sheriff’s Office safety curriculum is the first in the six course series that prepares civilians for Concealed Carry and compliments subsequent courses in the training regimen.
No, the training program is designed for civilians seeking a handgun permit (or who have a permit) and who have limited experience and training which would prepare them for a real world violent encounter.
No, the Sheriff's Office does not issue refunds for missed training classes. If the Sheriff's Office cancels or reschedules a class students will be notified immediately. Every effort will be made to reschedule the canceled class in a timely manner or move students into other available classes.
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected Deer Tick. Lyme disease may cause symptoms affecting the skin, nervous system, heart and/or joints of an individual. Your doctor can diagnose Lyme disease based on:
Your history of possible exposure to infected ticks depends on:
There are other diseases that cause illness similar to Lyme disease. Someone with Lyme disease may not have the characteristic bull's-eye rash or remember being bitten by a tick. Lab testing is not recommended for people who don't have symptoms of Lyme disease.
When you find a tick attached to your skin, there's no need to panic. There are several tick removal devices on the market, but a plain set of fine-tipped tweezers will remove a tick quite effectively. Firmly grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible. Pull upward with steady, even pressure. Don't twist or jerk the tick; this can cause the mouth-parts to break off and remain in the skin. If this happens, remove the mouth-parts with tweezers. If you are unable to remove the mouth easily with clean tweezers, leave it alone and let the skin heal. After removing the tick, thoroughly clean the bite area and your hands with rubbing alcohol, an iodine scrub, or soap and water. If you are concerned about a tick bite, contact your health care provider. He or she will help you determine the best steps to take after being bitten.
If redness or swelling develops within a few hours after the tick bite, but goes away within a day or 2, it is likely an allergic reaction to the tick and not a rash. Check the site of the bite for a rash and keep close watch on your health for 30 days after the bite. See a doctor if you develop:
Once you have removed the tick from yourself or a family member, you can throw the tick away in your normal garbage. Sometimes it may be helpful to keep the tick so it can be identified by your doctor or another health professional should you develop any symptoms. If you choose to do this, place the tick in a small jar or sealed plastic bag with rubbing alcohol, which will both kill and preserve it. Avoid folklore remedies such as "painting" the tick with nail polish or petroleum jelly, or using heat to make the tick detach from the skin. Your goal is to remove the tick as quickly as possible-not waiting for it to detach.
If you pulled a tick from your skin, clean the bite area with soap and water. If redness or swelling develops within a few hours after the tick bite, but goes away within a day or two, it is likely an allergic reaction to the tick and not a rash. Check the site of the bite for a rash and keep close watch on your health for 30 days after the bite. See a doctor if you develop:
Once you have removed the tick from yourself or a family member, you can throw the tick away in your normal garbage. Sometimes it may be helpful to keep the tick so it can be identified by your doctor or another health professional should you develop any symptoms. If you choose to do this, place the tick in a small jar or sealed plastic bag with rubbing alcohol, which will both kill and preserve it. If you are concerned about a tick bite, contact your health care provider. He or she will help you determine the best steps to take after being bitten.
The Lyme disease bacterium, is spread through the bite of infected ticks. The bacteria (germs) that cause Lyme disease normally live in mice, squirrels, and other small animals. Lyme disease is transmitted (spread) among these animals, and to humans, through the bites of deer ticks. Deer ticks are also called black-legged ticks.
Most humans are infected through the bites of immature ticks called nymphs. Nymphs are tiny (less than 2 millimeters) and difficult to see; they feed during the spring and summer months. Adult ticks can also transmit Lyme disease bacteria, but they are much larger and may be more likely to be discovered and removed before they have had time to transmit the bacteria. Adult ticks are most active during the cooler months of the year.
Discover details regarding signs and symptoms of Lyme Disease on the Signs and Symptoms page.
Your doctor can diagnose Lyme disease based on:
The accuracy of any test for Lyme disease depends upon the stage of disease. Blood testing for Lyme disease has poor sensitivity in the early stages of disease. Poor sensitivity means some people who have the disease will get a negative test result. CDC has long recommended that patients in the early stages of the disease be diagnosed and treated without the delay and expense of lab testing.
During later stages of disease, currently available testing methods have very good sensitivity (97% to 100%). If you think you might have Lyme disease, talk to your doctor.
Lyme disease is treated with antibiotics (drugs that kill bacteria). If you think you have Lyme disease, talk to your doctor right away. The recommended length of treatment depends on the antibiotic used. The antibiotic chosen for treatment depends on the symptoms and the patient. For complete details and for a better understanding of possible antibiotics view the Treatment for Lyme Disease page.
CDC shares your concern about Lyme disease and supports the development of a safe, effective, and adequately validated vaccine against this illness. For details about the future possibilities visit the Possible Future Vaccine for Lyme Disease page.
Not all ticks carry Lyme Disease, and not all deer ticks are infected with the bacteria that cause Lyme disease. Ticks can become infected if they feed on small animals that are infected. The disease can be spread when an infected tick bites a person and stays attached for a period of time.
(Image) From left to right: The deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) adult female, adult male, nymph, larva on a centimeter scale.
(Image) Adult Female Ticks:Ixodes (Deer Tick) - left and Dermacentor (Dog Tick) - right. Please note, ticks shown approximately three times actual size.
Most cases of Lyme disease occur during the late spring, early summer months when the nymphal stage deer tick is active. This tick is the size of a sesame or poppy seed.
Ticks are everywhere there is grass, especially around your home. They live close to the ground and crawl up on grass or bushes and hang, waiting for a ride to a blood meal. They are usually found at the edges of woods and lawns, on shrubs and bushes, in leaf litter, near stone walls and woodpiles.
The main thing you can do, to protect yourself, is a daily tick check, especially on children. Ticks need to be attached longer than 24 to 36 hours to pass on the disease, if they are infected. Tick checks should be done frequently while in a tick infested areas and again after leaving. The best time to check is after a bath or shower, feeling the skin for a tiny, scab like bump. A full body check is recommended including, the scalp, around the hairline and ears, neck, chest, armpits, waistband area, groin, behind the knee and between toes. Also check pets thoroughly when they come in from outdoors. Pets may have ticks feeding, which can fall off outdoors and lay eggs. They may also have ticks crawling on their fur which can then attach to our skin. Also, when going outdoors wear protective clothing. Wear shoes and socks; tick live close to the ground. Wear light colors to see ticks if they are crawling. Wear long pants and long sleeved shirts, if it’s not too hot, and tuck pants into socks and shirt into pants. Wear a hat to protect the hair and if you have long hair, tie it up and put it under the hat.
Wear repellents containing deet when outdoors. Follow the directions carefully. Do not spray aerosols indoors. Apply only to exposed skin and wash off when returning indoors. Try not to apply repellents to face and hands. Sweat can cause the repellents to run into eyes, or mouth and hands or fingers can find their way into the mouth. When walking in wooded or grassy areas, stay in the middle of the pathway. Avoid high-risk areas such as the edges of wood and tall grass fields. Moist, shaded areas may also be risk areas.
Keep the area around your property clear. Remove leaf litter and brush as far away from your house as possible. Prune low lying bushes to let in more sunlight, and rake up any leaves in areas where you or children spend time. This should be done every fall because ticks prefer to live during the winter under leaf-litter.
The first thing to remember is don’t panic. If you’ve been doing tick checks every day you have a good idea how long the tick has been attached. The tick needs to be removed. Prompt and proper removal will help reduce the risk of infection.
If you’re not sure what kind of tick you have, the Orange County Department of Health has a free tick identification service available. Also, in cooperation with the New York State Dept of Health, ticks brought to the Orange County Health Department will be sent out for identification, which takes a few days. Information in writing, as to what kind of tick it is, approximately how long the tick was attached and if any parts of the tick are missing, will be included in the information sent directly to your home. Neither the Orange County Department of Health nor the New York State Department of Health test ticks for the disease.
After you have all this information, you and your provider determine what action, if any, is needed.
Early symptoms usually appear within three to thirty days after the bite of an infected tick.
The Medical Examiner’s Office does not issue death certificates. Death certificates may be obtained at the municipal clerk/registrar’s office where the death occurred. An amended death certificate is also issued by the appropriate municipal officer after the Medical Examiner’s Office ascertains the cause and manner of death.
This usually takes 8 to 12 weeks but may be longer, depending upon the case complexity and required testing.
The spouse or legal next of kin may make application by contacting the Medical Examiner’s Office at 845-615-3870, for an Affidavit for Autopsy Report Request form. The original, notarized form must be returned to the:
Medical Examiner’s Office22 Wells Farm RoadGoshen, NY 10924
The report will be forwarded automatically when the case has been finalized.
Please go on the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles website and view/print the form MV 82.1. For more information, please call any of our Motor Vehicle Offices:
The Orange County Clerk’s Office does not process Traffic Tickets. Please contact the Municipality where the ticket was issued. Note: The Municipality will be notated on the ticket.
The New York State Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) does not allow our County offices to conduct any Motor Vehicle computer research or provide any personal Motor Vehicle information to an individual without viewing proper identification. You will need to come to one of our DMV offices in person to make this request. For more information, please call any of our Motor Vehicle Offices:
Please go on the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles website and view/print the form MV 44.1. For more information, please call any of our Motor Vehicle Offices:
The Orange County Clerk’s Office does not issue or file marriage licenses. To obtain or get a copy of your Marriage License, you need to contact your City or Town clerk.
The Orange County Clerk’s Office does not issue or file birth certificates. To obtain a copy of your Birth Certificate, contact the Clerk of the municipality where you were born.
Bring or mail in the document that is notarized. The fee is $3 per document. We can only authenticate the signatures of notaries public commissioned in Orange County. For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2690.
Please call us for a long-form renewal 845-291-2698 or 845-291-2699.
Your identification card will be sent to you from Albany in about three months. For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2690.
An authentication certifies the signature and the position of the official who has executed, issued or certified a copy of a document. Once your document has the County Clerk’s seal on it, you can present the document to New York State - Department of State for the Apostille. Please go to the Department of State's Division of Licensing website for further information. Apostilles are generally used outside of the United States. For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2690.
The administration office is open Monday-Friday 8 a.m.-4 p.m. for all inquires and reservations.
Dogs are permitted in most parks if they are leashed, up to date with shots and under the command of the owner. Owners are also responsible for cleaning up after their dogs. Dogs are not allowed on sports fields, golf courses and other posted areas. An off-leash Dog Park is located at Thomas Bull Memorial Park.
Yes, we have nine different picnic shelters located throughout the parks system. These open air picnic shelters are located in Thomas Bull Memorial Park (4), Algonquin Park, Winding Hills Park, Warwick County Park, Cronomer Hill Park (passive area near observation tower) and D&H Canal Park. Each picnic shelter features charcoal grills, picnic tables, restroom facilities and access to playgrounds and playing fields. These facilities require a reservation fee. The fees vary depending on the location and capacity (See Fee Structure). Maximum Capacity for open air picnic shelters range from 48-600 plus, depending on the facility. Call (845) 615-3830 for more information or to make a reservation.
Yes, we have six different indoor facilities available to rent for events, meetings, etc. There are two Golf Courses that feature full service banquet facilities and four other indoor facilities located throughout the County. Most of the indoor facilities feature tables, chairs, restroom facilities, kitchen areas and access to our local park system. These facilities require a reservation fee. The fees vary depending on the location and capacity (See Fee Structure). Maximum Capacity for these facilities range from 48-140, depending on the facility. Call (845) 615-3830 for more information or to make a reservation.
No, these areas are restricted to golfing. However, please refer to question 24 for a list of trails within the parks system.
No, hunting is prohibited on County Owned and operated parks.
No, there are no public swimming facilities in the County Parks System. Many local municipalities offer swim facilities for their residents.
All-Terrain Vehicles are prohibited from operating within the County Parks System; including but not limited to; trails, parks, athletic fields, access roads, waterfront areas, open space and golf courses.
The softball and baseball fields at Cronomer Park are managed by the County of Orange, however are scheduled by the Town of Newburgh Recreation Department. They can be reached at (845) 564-7815. The multi-purpose athletic field and tennis courts are scheduled by the County Parks Department. Call (845) 615-3830 for more information.
For information on hours and days of operation or to schedule a tour of the Hill-Hold and Brick House Museums call (845) 615-3830.
Tours of the Arboretum can be scheduled by calling (845) 615-3828.
TONY FORD & HICKORY HILL GOLF COURSES –Tee-times reservations can only be made on-line using your personal computer, the computer provided at each golf course or by phone.
The staff at both courses will always work with you to insure you continue to enjoy golfing at our facilities each and every time you come.
These policies are subject to revision at the discretion of the Department of Parks, Recreation and Conservation.
Youth Group (Max – 110) and Birthday Party (Max – 25) reservations can be made by calling (845) 457-4910.
There are playgrounds available at the following parks: Thomas Bull Memorial Park (4), Cronomer Hill Park (2), Algonquin Park, D&H Canal Park, Warwick County Park and Winding Hills Park.
There are six fast dry Har-Tru tennis courts available at David A Pardy Tennis Center at Thomas Bull Memorial Park in the Town of Hamptonburgh. These courts are available at no charge on a first come, first serve basis but use by tennis leagues requires court reservations (845-457-4910) and a nominal fee. There are also six lighted tennis courts available at no charge on a first-come, first-serve basis at Cronomer Hill Park in the Town of Newburgh.
No. The County Senior Center at the Warwick County Park has been closed. For information about other senior centers or programs for seniors please contact the Orange County Office for the Aging at 845-615-3700.
There are two full-service banquet facilities in the County Parks System at Stony Ford Golf Course and Hickory Hill Golf Course. Food and beverage service for events must be arranged directly with the concessionaire (Orange Hospitality). Beer and cocktails are available. Outside food brought in by groups and use of outside caterers is not permitted at the Golf Course facilities.
The County Parks Department operates a Snow Tubing Hill in the winter that features snowmaking and a lift. This facility is located at Thomas Bull Memorial Park, in addition to an ice skating rink, sledding hill and groomed cross county ski trails. Ice fishing, skating and groomed snowmobile trails are available at Winding Hills Park. All activities are weather permitting.
See our current Fee Structure here.
We have many miles of trails within the Orange County Parks System for exercise, nature observation and/or relaxation in the outdoors.
There is no fee, pass or permit for general use of our parks. There are some specialized facilities, facility rentals and equipment rentals that will require a fee. See our Fee Structure for a complete list.
Most parks are open dawn to dusk, with varying hours at some sites depending on location and use
Use the links on this page to learn more about any of our parks.
All minors, all first time applicants, all adults with very old passports (more than five years expired) or issued before their 16th birthday must appear and fill out DS-11 (PDF). For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2699.
To see what to provide with your application, visit out Application Requirements page.
The U.S Department of State passport fees must be paid by check or money order and are as follows:
For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2699.
If your departure is sooner than six weeks, we recommend that you utilize the "Expedite Service" which is three week turnaround ($60 extra charge per applicant and consider express delivery service. Please inquire at time of application for overnight delivery information).
If you go directly to one of the Passport Offices located in Stamford, Connecticut or New York City, you should get your passport within 8 business days. You must also have all the items listed on our Application Requirements page. You also need proof of travel plans. Call the centers before you appear. You must have proof of departure and you must have an appointment. Call 877-487-2778 to make the arrangements.
Call the National Passport Information Center , toll free at 1-877-487-2778 or you can check the status of your application online.
We take passport photos at our office ($10 fee) or pictures can be taken at locations offering "official passport pictures." Please remember that passport pictures must meet strict requirements.
Yes, with the exception of affidavits done specifically for application purposes. For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2699.
An adult’s passport (age 16 and over) is valid for 10 years. A minor’s passport (under 16) is valid for five years. For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2699.
Money orders can be obtained from banks, U.S. Post Office etc. For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2699.
Birth certificates can be obtained at the Town / City Clerk in the location where the birth took place. For births in New York State, but outside of New York City, they can also be obtained by calling 518-474-3077. For births in New York City call 212-788-4250. For 24 hour customer assistance for ordering, pricing and delivery information call 800-255-2414 or download a request form from the Vital Check website.
Passports issued when you are over 16 years of age and which are not more than five years expired, can be renewed through the mail by using Form DS-82 (PDF). For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2699.
Orange County Clerk’s Office4 Glenmere Cove RoadGoshen, NY 10924
Monday through Friday
9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
Or visit the Travel State website
The Passport Card is a United States Passport issued in card format. Like the traditional Passport Book, it reflects the bearer’s origin, identity and nationality and is subject to existing passport laws and regulations. Unlike the Passport Book, the card is valid only for international travel by land or sea between the United States, Canada, Mexico, the Caribbean and Bermuda. It is not globally acceptable and is not valid for travel by air to or from any foreign destination. For further questions, contact us at 845-291-2699.
There are three forms that you willinitially need to have completed when you report to be fingerprinted. These forms must be neatly completed in blackink only.
The first form is the Pistol Permit Pedigree Sheet (PPS-01),the second is the Arrest / ChargeAffidavit (PPS-02), and the third is the Authorization for Release ofPersonal Information (PPS-24). Youmay download and print the forms by clicking on the links on the Sheriff’sOffice Pistol Permit web page. Pleaseread the forms completely and carefully prior to filling them out. The Arrest/ Charge Affidavit and the Authorizationfor Release of Personal Information must be notarized.
Yes. As stated on the Arrest / Charge Affidavit,you must provide information about any and all arrests / charges including;tickets for Vehicle and Traffic Law arrests above the level of infraction. This would include Vehicle and Traffic Lawmisdemeanors or felonies which include Driving with a Suspended License(Aggravated Unlicensed Operation), Driving with a Suspended Registration, andReckless Driving, among others; any Youthful Offender arrest; any arrest sealedin your favor, any arrest dismissed upon your first appearance; any arrestdismissed via ACD, and any arrest voided by the arresting agency or DistrictAttorney’s Office, even if your lawyer at the time of the case advised you thatyou did not have to tell anyone about your arrest.
You may have been arrested even ifyou were never photographed or fingerprinted. You may have received a UTT (Traffic Ticket), a paper summons, or anAppearance Ticket and were not taken into custody.
No. It is your responsibility to record your appointment date and time andkeep it in a safe place that you will be able to reference.
Yes. You will need to provide four references andall of them must live in Orange County. In addition, the references must not be related to you or to each other(neither by blood nor marriage), they must not live with you or each other, andthey must not be employed by the Orange County Sheriff’s Office.
You must provide four references,all of which reside in Orange County. There is no minimum amount of time that the reference needs to haveknown you.
The Character ReferenceQuestionnaire clearly states on it that it is to be completed in black inkonly. It is recommended that you make anextra copy of the form prior to providing the form to your reference. If the reference completes the form in blueink, you may provide him or her with a new blank form for them to complete inblack ink. If you require additionalforms, you may obtain them from our office.
Proof of residence is verified byproviding utility bills that list your name and service address. Utility bills include those for gas,electric, water, land line telephone, and cable / satellite televisionservice. If the utility bills for yourresidence are in someone else’s name, you may provide 2 of the bills AND anotarized letter from the billed party indicating that you reside at thelocation.
Your Safety Course Certificateshould be issued no more than 6 months prior to the start of yourapplication. A list of recommendedSafety Course Instructors is available on the Orange County Sheriff’s Officewebsite. The Orange County Sheriff’sOffice also conveniently offers a Safety Course, information and registrationis available on line.
The Orange County Sheriff’s Officeis familiar with and supportive of the training being provided by therecommended Instructors. Trainingregimens being utilized by other Instructors may vary widely resulting inapplicants not receiving the same training. Therefore, if you provide a Safety Course Certificate from an Instructorthat does not appear on the recommended list, your application file will beforwarded to the issuing authority without a recommendation (barring any otherinformation that would otherwise lead to a recommendation of disapproval).
On the Orange County Sheriff’sOffice website, select “Civilian Handgun Training” which will bring you to anAccount Log In screen. If you do nothave an account, you may create one. Information is available in regards to courses offered (includingHandgun Safety Course) and you may register on line for a course once you havecreated an account.
No. When you get fingerprinted, you will be provided with a checklist ofdocuments you will need to return with. At the bottom of the checklist, is a list of days and hours during whichyou may return your paperwork.
The entire application processnormally takes approximately 3 to 6 months to complete.
Within 15 days of the death of thelicensee’s death, the executor or administrator of the licensee’s estate mustsurrender the handgun to a licensed dealer (FFL) or a local police departmentto be held for safekeeping. You willneed to provide us with a receipt from the dealer or police departmentindicating that they have possession of the handgun along with documentationindicating that you have property rights to the handgun (ie. Bill of sale,letter from executor, etc.). You maythen list the handgun information on the rear of your application.
Amendments to current, valid pistolpermits are processed through the Orange County Clerk’s Office Pistol PermitUnit. The Orange County Sheriff’s OfficePistol Permit Unit is responsible for completing initial applicant backgroundinvestigations. Amendments to existingpistol permits must be followed up on with the Orange County Clerk’s OfficePistol Permit Unit.
Yes. You will need to contact the Pistol PermitUnit in the county of issuance and have them forward your permit file to theOrange County Clerk’s Office Pistol Permit Unit, located at 4 Glenmere CoveRd., Goshen NY 10924. Once the OrangeCounty Clerk’s Office Pistol Permit Unit is in receipt of your file, you willbe guided by their instructions.
In old western movies, people predictably squared up against each other at “high noon” for a “fair gunfight,” and it was always the good guy who was the faster draw. Events like that didn’t happen in real life even in the Old West, and they don’t happen now. Police officers are at a disadvantage in encounters with citizens.
Officers must confront the behavior of aggressors they don’t know, and an aggressor’s intent must be inferred from what he’s already done. The aggressor has the advantage of knowing the outcome he intends and the ability to set the pace at which the encounter unfolds. An officer usually has the advantage of superior training and resources, but other factors in those encounters contribute to a challenging dynamic. Those factors include concern for the protection of innocent people, an inability to control the pace of the encounter, stress associated with balancing potentially lethal choices, and changes in the ability to perceive under stress.
To make the situation more challenging, officers in armed encounters are forced to react to the actions of an aggressor. The aggressor always has a time advantage, since it takes longer for an officer to react than it does for the aggressor to act. Therefore, to protect themselves and the people around them, officers must anticipate potential threats and must be prepared to neutralize those threats before the aggressor acts. A responding officer must continuously assess the threat. If a threat is identified, the officer must decide how to reduce it in a way that doesn’t put others at unnecessary risk. That process takes time, during which the aggressor may be moving toward his objective. Officers may have only fractions of a second to decide how to stop an aggressor.
As a society we feel sympathy for those who are mentally impaired or in crisis. We may even wish to intervene to assist them, or to give them the benefit of the doubt when they behave erratically. Conditions like that don’t render an aggressor harmless. In fact, influences that make people less predictable often make them more dangerous.
Intoxication or mental impairment may make a person very strong or reluctant to communicate or to follow instructions. Intoxicated aggressors are often insulated from pain, so that non-lethal weapons are ineffective in stopping them. The law enforcement response must always be based on the actions of the aggressor and the context in which they occur.
When police respond to a threat, they must ensure public safety, their own safety, and, if possible, the aggressor’s safety. Crisis intervention will often be attempted and many officers have been trained to slow crisis situations down, when possible. Those techniques have limits, and the pace of an encounter and its outcome are ultimately within the control of the aggressor.
In movies, it appears easy to take a knife away from an assailant. In reality, disarming such a person is a dangerous tactic that creates an unjustifiable risk of injury to the officer and others. An officer’s appropriate response to deadly force is to use force that can immediately stop the aggressor’s ability to injure others. An edged weapon can cause death or serious injury.
In addition, it takes less time for a person with a knife to assault an officer within thirty feet or more, than it takes for the officer to recognize the threat, draw his weapon, and defend himself. Pepper spray and batons are generally not a safe alternative against an edged weapon. Depending upon the situation, position, and actions of the aggressor, and the presence of other officers providing cover, a TASER might not be a safe option either. In most cases, using those would be inappropriate and place citizens and officers in jeopardy.
Hollywood has created another myth, that of the Old West law man shooting a weapon out of an aggressor’s hand or shooting the aggressor in the arm or leg, and thereby stopping or disarming him. Like all of the Hollywood myths associated with police-citizen encounters, that one doesn’t stand up to scrutiny. Officers are not trained to shoot to kill, but to shoot to stop the aggressor, so their training tells them to aim for the “center mass” – the middle of the largest exposed area on the aggressor – because aiming there increases the likelihood of hitting and stopping the aggressor.
That’s critical, because the officer is reacting to the stress of an encounter and both the officer and the aggressor may be moving. The likelihood of hitting a small, rapidly moving target, such as a foot or hand, is low. An aggressor can move his hand into a shooting position faster than an officer can react to pull the trigger. As a result, an officer can’t reliably hit a threatening suspect’s forearm or a weapon in a suspect’s hand, even if both the officer and the subject are stationary, which they rarely will be in such an encounter.
Non-lethal tools, including Extended Range Impact Munitions (bean-bags) or TASERs may be used if less-than-lethal force is appropriate. Non-lethal tools, however, often don’t incapacitate a subject. Non-lethal tools often only startle, distract, or create minor pain to the subject, or only momentarily stop him. Because it is sometimes ineffective at stopping a threat, non-lethal force requires that a second officer be prepared to use lethal force.
The fact that an assailant was shot in the back does not necessarily mean he was running away from the officer and wasn’t a threat when the officer shot. An aggressor might start out presenting a face-to-face threat, but in the times it takes for the officer to perceive the threat, decide to shoot, draw his weapon, and pull the trigger, the assailant can partially turn away, exposing his back. Furthermore, suspects frequently fire weapons behind them as they run away.
Even though a police officer will shoot such a suspect in the back, that doesn’t mean the fleeing suspect wasn’t a threat to the officer or others. Sometimes an early shot from the officer will incapacitate the assailant, but before the officer can perceive that, he might fire several additional shots. One of those shots might hit the assailant in the back as he falls through the path of bullets that the officer fires before perceiving that the threat has been neutralized.
An attacker can be shot many times and continue to attack before his wounds cause him to stop. An aggressor can sustain multiple fatal wounds to the head, torso, and other body parts, but continue to be mobile and lethal for a time. Drugs or an altered mental state can make an aggressor less responsive to the immediate effects of being shot, and officers are trained to shoot until the threat is stopped.
If they see no reaction, and the threat persists, officers will continue to shoot. With as many as four rounds fired per second, an aggressor may be struck multiple times before he stops attacking. If more than one officer uses lethal force, even more rounds may be fired before the threat is stopped.
Although videos of police use of force are helpful, they can’t tell the whole story. They are a two-dimensional record of a three-dimensional event. They only record from one perspective, and it’s often not that of the officer. Think of a football game, for example, where officials often play back video from many angles to make a final call. Those calls often remain controversial, even though the officials have the benefit of multiple viewing angles, consultation, and time to guide their decisions. Officers in a lethal encounter have none of those benefits.
Also, cameras often only record a portion of the event and are limited by technological specifications. Some cameras are triggered to record by motion. Others can distort the action by recording at rates as slow as ten frames per second. So, even when they are present, cameras can never tell the whole story from the officer’s perspective.Video can help determine whether an officer was justified in the use of deadly force. An officer’s use of force must be judged from the perspective of the officer at the moment deadly force was used, taking into consideration information the officer had at the time. To do that properly, all facts known to the officer at the time must be considered, not just what is displayed on a video.
Contact the Orange County Department of Finance; they can be reached at 845-291-2480.
Your assessor is responsible for the assessment on your property; any questions regarding assessment should be directed to your local assessor. Visit the Assessors/Collectors page for the names and phone numbers of your Local Assessors.
Deeds are filed in the County Clerk's Office. Questions regarding filing costs and policies should be directed to the County Clerks Office at 845-291-2690.
A copy of your town’s Assessment Roll can be viewed at your town assessor’s office. In addition, we also have a personal computer with Image Mate loaded on it for public use at our office in Goshen where real property data may be viewed. This information is also available through the Parcel page on our website.
Most questions regarding the tax sale auction can be answered by viewing the Deed Sale section of our website. Further questions can be directed to Eric Ruscher at 845-291-2491 or Donna Fonseca at 845-291-2492 of this office.
Tax maps can be purchased from our Tax Map Department. Please see the Tax Map section of our website for pricing information.
A Real Property FOIL request can be submitted via fax at 845-291-2499 or dropped off at the Real Property office. Please use the FOIL Request form to complete your request.
The Orange County Clerk's Office does not file small claims. Contact the town, village, or city court where you reside.
The Orange County Clerk's Office does not file wills or estates. Please contact the Orange County Surrogate Court at 845-476-3610.
No, you must provide us with accounts and properties you wish to be seized or the name and address of the employer.
No, we do not give legal advice, but advise you of our procedures.
New York State law requires you to make payments (10% of your gross pay under certain conditions), on a regular basis. You should remit payments at least bi-weekly.
No. Under New York State Law, a judgment debtor can only have one 10% garnishment at a time.
No. Under New York State Law, 25% is the maximum amount garnishable.
No. Under New York State Law, a judgment debtor must take home at least $291 a week. This is the gross pay minus all deductions mandated by law and the 10% garnishment.
The Sheriff seizes or levies upon property for the purpose of satisfying a money judgment. This is done by liquidating the assets (converting the asset into cash). This is accomplished by holding a "Sheriff's Sale" which is a public auction.
The highest bidder pays his bid price to the Sheriff and takes custody and ownership* of the auctioned property. The Sheriff pays any service providers or vendors who assisted in the seizure (like towing and storage), from the sale proceeds, deducts the various fees and expenses associated with the levy and sale from the proceeds and applies the balance to the judgment.
Sheriff's sales are held throughout the year, at no set schedule. When the Sheriff conducts a sale depends upon when he seizes property; it is not the case where the Sheriff would seize property in connection with several or many cases and hold the property for one big sale. Sales are held "as needed."
All real estate execution sales are conducted at our office located in the Sheriff’s Office Lobby, or such other place as advertised. Personal property sales (cars, equipment, machinery, etc.), are conducted at the site where the property is actually located.
Sheriff's sales are public auctions, so anyone can bid. The only exception is that members of the Orange County Sheriff's Office may not bid. A person acting as agent for a company or corporation may bid on behalf of the company or corporation he represents.
There are no sealed bids or phone bids. A party may bid on behalf of/as agent for, a party not present as long as the agent is present at the sale and the bidder has provided his authority to the Sheriff for such arrangement, in writing, prior to the sale. Additionally, while anyone may attend and participate in the bidding, only those bidders who have registered to bid will be allowed to do so. This simply involves the bidder signing and printing his name, address and phone number on a ledger sheet provided at the sale.
A standard auction format is used and there is usually no opening bid or minimum bid. Bidding must be in dollar increments.
All property is sold "as is, where is." No guarantees or warrantees are made, expressed or implied for anything sold at any sale, with respect to condition, value, use, operation, safety, marketability, resale, sufficiency or accuracy of description, authenticity, or anything other matter not consistent with the obligations or duties of the Sheriff. Cash is always required for a down payment. For the purchase of Personal Property (Car, Boat, Etc…) a minimum of 10% is due and payable at the conclusion of bidding only cash will be accepted for the full payment. For the purchase of Real Property (Land, House, Etc…) a minimum of 10% cash is due and payable at the conclusion of bidding. If the bid is unusually high, the balance might be paid with a bank cashier's check, certified funds, attorney check, or money order. Any other potential exceptions must be cleared prior to the sale. If a down payment is made, the remaining balance is due by 4 p.m. the following day. If not paid in full the buyer is subject to forfeiture of down payment. Alternate arrangements must be pre-approved. The bidder cannot take possession of the property until he receives a written release from the Sheriff’s Office and the release will not be issued until the bid price is fully paid.
Nothing is added to the bid price except for sales tax at the prevailing rate. Those exempt from sales tax must provide, before a release or certificate of sale is issued by the Sheriff, a properly completed tax exemption form ST-120 or other form as required by any law. The expenses of the levy and sale will be deducted from the sale proceeds, if any. Where storage has accrued, it will be paid up to and including the day of sale. Thereafter, the purchaser is responsible for any charges. The purchaser is also responsible for making arrangements for the removal, transportation, security, safety, etc. of the purchased property.When real property is sold, the purchaser must pay to the Sheriff a $20 deed fee at the time the deed and associated documents are delivered. Any other terms or requirements as may be expressed or implied by any rule or law are operational as long as such is not inconsistent with the Sheriff's duties and responsibilities as stated here or by law, at the time of sale, or other time. The preceding policies and procedures are subject to modification based upon innumerable variations and factors related to the property and court directions.
The purchaser at a sheriff's sale is acquiring the interest of the judgment debtor in the property levied upon. If, for example, the interest of the judgment debtor in a motor vehicle is subject to a lien, then that is what the bidder is buying. For real property, if the debtor's interest is governed by a joint tenancy, for example, or other deed restriction, or is subject to a superior lien or encumbrance, then that is what the bidder is purchasing.
The purchaser is acquiring the judgment debtor's "right, title and interest" in or to the property, whatever that may be. The Sheriff does not research such things nor make opinions or assertions relative to such matters.
When personal property is sold, the successful bidder will receive a receipt for the payment of his bid, and a release which will be directed to the agency, person or party having possession of the property. This authorizes the release of the property to the purchaser; a certificate of sale, which transfers the judgment debtor's interest in and to the property, to the purchaser; accompanying the certificate of sale will be a copy of the execution, which is the legal instrument authorizing and directing the levy and sale.
When real property is sold, the purchaser will receive a receipt for the payment of the bid price, a Sheriff's Deed and the several documents attesting to procedure.
The Sheriff does not maintain a mailing list. In addition to this website, a printed notice of sale is usually posted in three public places in Goshen, the:
For personal property sales, the law requires a notice of sale to be posted at three public places in the town or city where the actual auction takes place, at least six days before the sale. Such postings typically are done at the local town hall and other government buildings.